To Understand Web Security

Wifi is working via radio waves. Receiver (alici; radios, TV) ,  transmitter (verici; radio station, TV station), trans-receiver (alici-verici; phone, phone baz station) is important terms about wifi.

Wifi Security Settings:

  • Open (risky): Open Wi-Fi networks have no passphrase. 
  • WEP 64 (risky): The old WEP protocol standard is vulnerable as of right now!
  • WEP 128 (risky): This is WEP, but with a larger encryption key size. It isn’t really any less vulnerable than WEP 64.
  • WPA-PSK (TKIP): This uses the original version of the WPA protocol (essentially WPA1). It has been superseded by WPA2 and isn’t secure.
  • WPA-PSK (AES): This uses the original WPA protocol, but replaces TKIP with the more modern AES encryption. It’s offered as a stopgap, but devices that support AES will almost always support WPA2, while devices that require WPA will almost never support AES encryption. So, this option makes little sense.
  • WPA2-PSK (TKIP): This uses the modern WPA2 standard with older TKIP encryption. This isn’t secure, and is only a good idea if you have older devices that can’t connect to a WPA2-PSK (AES) network.
  • WPA2-PSK (AES): This is the most secure option. It uses WPA2, the latest Wi-Fi encryption standard, and the latest AES encryption protocol. You should be using this option. On some devices, you’ll just see the option “WPA2” or “WPA2-PSK.” If you do, it will probably just use AES, as that’s a common-sense choice.
*** TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol)  and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) are two different types of encryption that can be used by a Wi-Fi network. TKIP is actually an older encryption protocol introduced with WPA to replace the very-insecure WEP encryption at the time. 

AES is a more secure encryption protocol introduced with WPA2. AES isn’t some creaky standard developed specifically for Wi-Fi networks.

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WPA2 with a strong password is secure as long as you disable WPS. You'll find this advice in guides to securing your Wi-Fi all over the web.  (WPS divide 8 pin code to 4 - 4. If you pass the first 4, it connects you to the internet. To crack 8 pin takes 6 years. However, 4 pin takes 1 day. )
You can disable WPS (Wifi Protected Setup) in the modem's admin panel.

IDS stands for Intrusion Detection Systems
IPS stands for Intrusion Prevention Systems
IDPS
Intrusion /int ru jin/ Zorla iceri girme




Three-Way Handshake

A three-way handshake is a method used in a TCP/IP network to create a connection between a local host/client and server. It is a three-step method that requires both the client and server to exchange SYN and ACK (acknowledgment) packets before actual data communication begins.
A three-way handshake is also known as a TCP handshake.
  1. A client node sends a SYN data packet over an IP network to a server on the same or an external network. The objective of this packet is to ask/infer if the server is open for new connections.
  2. The target server must have open ports that can accept and initiate new connections. When the server receives the SYN packet from the client node, it responds and returns a confirmation receipt –  SYN/ACK packet.
  3. The client node receives the SYN/ACK from the server and responds with an ACK packet.
Note: TCP RST packet is the remote side telling you that the connection on which the previous TCP packet is sent is not recognized, maybe the connection has closed, maybe the port is not open, and something like these. TCP RST means that connection is not valid.

Cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing. A cookie is information that a Web site puts on your hard disk so that it can remember something about you at a later time.  They can be used for advertisement purpose too.

Proxy

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.
There is an encryption on VPN. However there is no encryption on proxy. Also,

Speed: It can save cache of a website. So, the computer doesn't go to the server everytime.
Control: Proxy can make some restrictions on users. It can also change the content of the website.
Security: Proxy can scan files and delete them so, it decrease the chance of the spreading of virus software

HTTP Methods

GET:
POST: To send data to server. Data is not in url part, is in body. You can't see the data since it is inbody part. However, you can change the data if you access the proxy server. (If proxy is being used)
PUT:
HEAD
DELETE
PATCH
OPTIONS
https://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_httpmethods.asp

Source: https://www.howtogeek.com, https://www.techopedia.com, https://whatis.techtarget.com

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